FLORA

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VEGETATION DIVERSITY

Specific micro - relief with very rich hydrological system is the main prerequisite for development of secondary aquatic vegetation. The main, central point within Bardaca complex is actually freshwater and swamp vegetation. On the other hand, different types of forests and meadows are present, and due to higher anthropogenic influence weed species and ruderal ruderal vegetation has developed more. During the research on vascular flora and vegetation of the swamp Bardaca region, Kovacevic (2005) registered 316 species and seven clearly defined communities that belong to the aquatic and semi-aquatic vegetation.

In ecological chain moving from the middle of water basin towards the bank, associations are forming several vegation zones. Submerse species of associations Ceratophylletum demersi and Myriophyllo–Potametum  are developed in deeper water. Following the zone of  submerse vegetation comes zone of floating vegetion which is consisted of following asociations: Nymphaeetum albo-luteae, Trapetum natantis and Hydrochari-Nymphoidetum peltatae. At the bank (shore)  region that is periodically or at all time flooded occures deveopment of semi-aquatic vegetation that is consisted of following association’s individuals: Scirpo-Phragmitetum communis which are in contact with meadow, forest and ruderal vegetations.

Meadow vegetation is characterised by the presence of Agropyro-Rumicion  association, and Deschampsietum caespitosae community. Communities of Arrhenatherion elatioris associations are present in the zone of mesophyll forests of  Sessile oak and regular hornbeam (Querceto-Carpinetum betuli) at the area of poorly to medium acidified soil.

Due to the change of altitude, hydrological and soil regime forest vegetation is differentiated in more zones. At the skeletal calcareous soils, mostly on the south sides, there is a forest zone of honey oak and black hornbeam (Querco-Ostryetum carpinifoliae).  At the area of higher and more arid habitat (approximately 250 meters of altitude) above zone of lowland flooded forests community of Pedunculate oak regular hornbeam (Carpino betuli-Quercetum roboris) is spread. Primary forest vegetation of North Bosnia is lowland flooded forests vegetation which is present in the area of river basins (Vrbas, Sava, etc.). Communities of Pedunculate oak and gorse are present (Genisto elatae-Quercetum roboris) at the areas of marshland-gley soils that have lower level of underground water. At the area of eugley soils that are influenced by underground water dominant community is represented by Leucojo-Fraxinetum angustifoliae.  Next ones to follow are communities of Salici-Populetum and Populetum nigrae-albae at alluvial soil, which are tightly connected to non-forest vegetation.

            Weed and ruderal vegetations are found next to the roads, in shallow marsh, at the water pool banks, and fishponds that are not being as fish farms any longer. Present associations are: Polygono-Bidentetum tripartitae, Lolio-Plantaginetum majoris, Panico-Galinsogetum, Polygonetum avicularis, Arctio-Artemisietum vulgaris, and others.

            Vascular hydrophytes have multiple positive roles that are represented in importance of proven positive effects on live world, water and sediment characteristics, such as: anti-erosion, anti-termic, bioaccumulation, bio-filtration, phyto-rehabilitation, allelopathic and bio-indicators effect.

Anthropologic adjustments to living conditions disturbed the balance in natural ecosystems where marshland-moor system is part of it. The loss of phyto-diversity is caused by hydro melioration measures and rapid eutrophication. Due to all this some of the natural rarities (Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea alba, Acorus calamus and others) are at the edge of byological existence.

            According to the species list for future B&H Red Book (Silic, 1996), Bardaca region has 18 endangerous or vulnerable species. It is of big importance to stress out that Bardaca marshland region has relic representatives of terciar flora: Nympaea alba, Nuphar lutea, Najans marina, Hidrocharis morsus-ranae, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, Trapa natans, Butomus umbellatus, Vallisneria spiralis , and it should be given a special attention when it comes to their protection.

THE NEGATIVE FACTORS WHICH DISTURB THE ECO-SYSTEM OF BARDACA AND PRROPOSAL OF THE PROTECTION MEASURES

Swamp complex Bardaca, in the bordering north of Lijevce polje, has been the typical area with mozaical disposition of the flooded forests with different regimes of flooding and water areas with different sizes and depths.

The central part of Bardaca was transformed into cyprinid fish pond by anthropogenic activity at the beginning of the last century. Today, it includes 11 basins and additional fish ponds (channel network, cassets for young fish breeding, cassets for hibernation of young fish etc.) necessary for its functioning. This eco-system has been imperiled by building of fish ponds in this area, as well as conducting of numerous agrotechnical measures, drainage, etc. In spite of constant antropogenic activities, Bardaca has preserved its authentic look and composition of flora and fauna, specific for this area.

After changing in property relations by privatization of fish pond, new period for Bardaca began. In the aim of better production, unplanned and unrational measures are conducting in the whole area causing the destruction of different types of habitats and natural eco-systems' balance.  With cutting of trees, tinning underbrush and canes, destroying of macrophyte vegetation and killing of birds by which richness this area was known, not only to scientific then the social public, not so long ago, the whole area started to lose its natural look and ecological significance.

Besides permanent and intensive agrotechnic and hydrotechnic measures, numerous activities of local population that live close to Bardaca affecting the ecological character. These activities should be emphasized: intensive pasture, unrational use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, releasing of waste water from households and farms directly into water streams, throwing out the communal trash on the places which are not provided for such purpose, etc.

By the destruction of the autochthonous swamp habitats or changing of basic sinecological opportunities, consequently many plant and animal species have been disappearing. It should be emphasized that diversity of species includes richness and diversity of organic species at the given area, independently from their filogenetical and taxonomic position. In the same time, the diversity of species is a carrier of the genetic diversity through the individual organisms, population and species in general. If one considers the species on the edge of the survival, there is a certain significance of their preserving from fundamental and protective aspects.

In the aim of mitigation of the negative effects on the eco-system Bardaca, it is important to undertake all necessary measures in the aim of designation of Bardaca as a Ramsar site, in accordance with signed obligations of the Ramsar convention, first of all, because it is specific, ecologicaly very sensitive natural habitat, with large diversity of flora and fauna.

On the other side, the International Organizations and Institutions are ready to give every sort of support for designation of Bardaca as the Wetland of International Importance, and for conducting of all measures of Wise use, with all measures of environmental protection.

On that way, Bardaca registered as the protected area would have become the place of new scientific and researching programmes, new rural strategies, local ecological plans, by linking of rational use, better area preserving, biodiversity, restoration of traditional, rural economy (including agriculture), rural tourism (agro-eco-tourism), proper urban planning and zonation.

Except researchers-experts and competent Ministry in the Government of Republic of Srpska, very important role in declaration of Bardaca have Ministry of Urbanism, Civil Engeneering and Ecology of Republic of Srpska and other Ministries: Ministry of  Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Economy, Energy and Development, Ministry of  Science and Technology, Ministry of Trade and Tourism and Ministry of Finance. Stronger relationship and coordination are necessary between individual, mentioned Ministries in the Government of Republic of Srpska, to attain rational and sustainable use of sensitive and important eco-system Bardaca and its preserving for future. 

LAND USE

The wetland of Bardaca is made up by 10 ha of natural marshes and swamps and 657 ha of natural and artificial fish pounds. It was a natural wetland, significant habitat for wild life (including endemic species) and a station for migratory birds. There is a strong potential for the recovery of the sensitive ecosystem in the area, which can attract the interest of scientists-researchers and tourist and allow economic development of the area.

The complex of Bardacha wetland itself encloses around 3.500 ha and it is divided into the following land use  categories:

                       

Land use in the ecosystem of Bardacha

Natural ecosystems

Forest

324 ha

9.25%

Swamp

10 ha

0.28%

Pastures

431 ha

12.31%

Artificial ecosystem

Agricultural land

1260 ha

35.98%

Orchards

14 ha

3.99%

Pastures

431 ha

12.31%

Grass land

614 ha

17.53%

Fish pounds

657 ha

18.76%

Urban surface

199 ha

5.68%