Climatic, hydrological and pedological features
Bardaca area represents a unique eco-system predisposed by interaction of many natural and anthropogenic factors. Location and influence of the Sava and Vrbas rivers had directly influenced on genesis of geological structure, and further reflected on pedological characteristics, which predisposed development of flora and fauna of that area. Complex terrain structure dictates the hydrological characteristics too, which determined the hydrological regime important for the development of swamp habitat. In addition to mentioned natural characteristics it is necessary to emphasize that in the last 50 years anthropogenic influence has ensured survival and eco-system development from one side, and from the other side degradated the same one. This conflict of various space influences is present even today. Having in mind builded defensive embankment on the Sava and Vrbas rivers, as the biggest rivers related to genesis of this area, natural flooding of this area was prevented causing water or damp deficit. Flooding was necessary for wetland eco-system development.
On the benefit of other parts of Lijevce polje, whole chanel network was built drainaging the whole field and gravetately evacuating water to the Bardaca, as the lowest part of Lijevce polje.
These channels were used as the water source. Water was transported through them to Bardaca maintaining the fish pond artificially, as well as, other eco-systems on Bardaca. Current water suppling of Bardaca fish pond is solved on the account of the Matura river.
The area of Bardaca, for its geological and hydrographical position, belongs to the Danube, more exactly Sava basin. In the Bardaca eco-system area the Sava is lowland river, surrounded with arable land protected from flooding by enbankment, though flood can appear in the rainy periods.
Surface part of the terrain is characterized by hydrogeological function of isolator, so the area is naturally predisposed for wetland eco-system development. Water from the area of Lijevce polje and Bardaca is in direct dependence. After heavy rain, the level of river water raise, what is connected with underground water regime.
Regarding the characteristics of rainfall regime this area is located on the border of crossing zone from maritime to continental pluviometric regime. Maximal rainfall appear in autumn and winter, while minimum rainfall appear in July and August. The avarage annual temperatures oscillate from 10,8ºC to 9,4ºC what is termical characteristic of moderately continental climate.
There are the following soil types in Bardaca area: eugley (swamp-gley soils), fluvisols (alluvial soils) and humofluvisols (semi-gley soils).
In the complex of Bardaca is presented unrational attitude toward some parts of nature in the last time, with the aim of exploitation of many benefits of this special nature reservat. Such relation has contributed the change in the breeding places and habitats for many animal species, which probably migrated from this area, what can be confirmed by future research. This change of certain biotopes produces the conditions for gradual reducing the animal species number, leading to endangering of many registered species, which exist on Bardaca at the moment.
The endangerment of animal species on Bardaca have been appearing at the moment of natural ecosystem degradation, which determine the state of its many biotopes and creating the special conditions for successive changes. The certain number of animal species is endangered because of the excessive exploitation too. In relation with that, it comes to irretrievable loss of biological diversity through disappearing of different development forms and large number of organic species or reducing of their population to critical number on that locality.
In the aim to prevent such a disturbance, it is necessary large ecological knowledge, patience and time.
Disappearance of individual species is caused by combination of two factors – destroying of habitats and uncontrolled exploitation.
Ichthyofauna members, determined as allochthonous species, presented in Bardaca water are:
1. Ameiurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819) - brown bullhead;
2. Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) – prussian carp;
3. Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) – grass carp;
4. Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) - bighead carp;
5. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) - silver carp;
6. Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) – stone moroko;
7. Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) – pumpkinseed;Hydrographic area of Bardaca is rich in different fish species, but multi-disciplinary, studious research of this area is imposed as the necessary activity in the future, for timely and adequate protection measures aiming to preserving this unique and sensitive eco-system.